EIP-3475 : Multiple Callable Bonds Standard

This standard proposes an generic interface for creation , management of the financial bonds between issuers and redeeming parties on blockchain , in a way which is :

  • efficient to evaluate / modify the state throughout the lifecycle of the bonds .
  • being (nearly*) independent of off-chain data for management of the issuance and redemption.
  • and are Decentralized in terms of creation / management vis a vis current alternatives.

Why

Bonds have been one of the most prominent fixed rate instruments by volume in the overall debt securities market of traditional markets . (ref) .Majorly issued by the world governments , so that their stability in returning is considered as a major factor for stability of the currency and monetary policy.

Similarly in DeFI , from major projects like olympus DAO are issuing specific type of fixed rate bonds for LP tokens, to more institution / Real World Finance Adoption like Societe Generale issuing bonds as guarantee for an loan to makerdao(here) , bonds are going to be the next prominent asset class to grow adoption of defi after swaps and staking .

These instruments are divided into various classes , based on the nature of the bond redemption (Fixed rate or floating rate APY) , stability , etc , and each class the bonds are identified in terms of Nonce (id’s , serial number listing as explained in BONDS | BOND MARKET | PRICES | RATES | Markets Insider

Apart from that , Generic bonds minimally consist of following information :

  • Debt metrics ( represented as supply) :
    • Active Supply : this is the current active debt obligation that has to be settled by the current redeeming party .
    • Redeemed Supply: this supply corresponds to the amount of the given debt of the bond already redeemed
    • Burned supply : consist of the part of the bond debt that is being cancelled / is being invalidated .

Metadata information:

Info describing the information about the nature of classes , this includes the nonceInfoDescription , details concerning the

But this adoption in DeFI is lagged due to various factors , primarily factors being :
Lack of interoperability between the different bond markets :

  • Inefficient : each bonds deployed (like LP’s) need the instantiation of factory of contracts which are dependent in order to do issuance and redemption of the bonds , this cause fragmentation of the liquidity pools and needs more gas fees for transferring & optimising liquidity , along with issues like ILP.
  • offchain dependence of the data for issuance / redemption of the bonds

In order to solve the issues , we have defined the data structure to store the state of the bonds in an gas and storage efficient way , along with the functions to maintain the lifecycle /transfer and redemption of bonds.

links

for reading further about the EIP standard check the review version here.

example of the minimal implementation with tests are in the same repo, feel free to review and ask queries .

thanks

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It will be interesting to see how this standard based on the Blockchain allows to reduce the time of bond issuance, since in traditional finance, it can take more than a week for a bond to be issued. Also, removing all intermediaries which impact the cost of the bond would probably encourage investors.

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On the EIP, the description of Burn seems not to be correct

burn(address from, uint256 classId, uint256 nonceId, uint256 amount) allows the transfer of any number of bond types from an address to another.

The “_amount” is the list of amount of the bond, that will be transferred from "_from"address to “_to” address.

There is no _to address in the definition

thanks

indeed the motivation of this standard is to compose an structure that can be referred to issue , redeem bonds at same time without referring to any offchain / onchain smart contract protocols

thanks for finding the mistake in the description , indeed we dont need the “_to” address as in the implementation users have to reduce the amount of the bonds from the class structure . similar to the ERC20 where the _to is address(0). we will rectify the omission .

Could you be more price on how you are going to issue bonds through this EIP ? I know that bonds are financial instruments usually issued by corporations and government to borrow money, therefore it is more likely that the decentralized bonds you are proposing from this EIP will even face regulation from institutions or just be unauthorized in some countries.

One more question about class and nonce, in traditional bond systems there are no such parameters as characteristics of bonds, what is the advantage of introducing those news bond characteristics ?

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In the EIP it says that AMM is gas efficient, what makes it gas efficient? Is it just the structure or there is something more to it for gas savings?

What is the difference between your standard and EIP 1450 which is stagnant now.
?
Link for reference: EIP-1450: ERC-1450 A compatible security token for issuing and trading SEC-compliant securities

Hello guys,
Is this standard Fungible or not Fungible? The text doesn’t explicitly define it.
Thank you

Thanks for question .
Regarding issuance of the bonds , it depends on the :

  • type of asset class you want to associate .
  • what are the criteria for the creation of Bond Classes and Nonces for bond in the given class .
  • and the metadata that defines the additional conditions of bonds (standards like green bonds)
  • most importantly the supplies (active , burned and redeemed supplies from the given market maker of the bonds or issuing entity) and finally redemption time / conditions .

then we will need to understand the different counterparts in the process of issuing the bonds . for our reference implementation we considered the following (which are explained in our whitepaper for v1 implementation here) :

  1. Banks : these are the orchestrator for issuance and redemption of bonds after maturity(and only this entity has the right to issue compliant bonds ).

  2. Automated Pair Maker (APM) : this is the analogy of AMM but being single consolidated pools , where unlike the AMM , the bonds can be issued for single or multiple underlying collaterals

  3. Secondary market maker(auction marketplace): to provide possiblity for P2P transfer and bidding of bonds .

Regarding the question of compliance :

Indeed our standard provides the minimal interface for encoding the information needed for compliance across different institutions . but we need to insure that the issuer entity (either the Bank contract as explained above or any external entity ) needs to encode the necessary information and corresponding metadata in the bond data structure , so that the destination marketplace (like the secondary market / APM or other offchain entity for certification / price oracles etc) can decode and validate the information .

if you want an reference of the ease of our standard in handling this issue , checkout one of the latest issuance of bonds by an major french bank using modified version of ERC20 standard here , we see that the bonds issued only defines the corresponding supply , standard and maturity date . thus it lacks the other parameters required to check the overall supply , redemption conditions and to be sold on the secondary exchange , we will be needing the parent contract to fetch the details .

so in traditional bonds systems , we indeed have the notion of bonds and class . for example , the class information defines tghe category of the bond (name , category (based on redemption time , zero coupon , fixed rate and floating rate etc))and the nonce corresponds to the current state of the bonds (active , redeemed supply , interest rate , redemption time etc).

The advantage of using our implementation of bond structure is its unifies the different categories of bonds , their issuance from the single contract type .

thanks for the question ,

So if i understand correctly , you posed question from the rationate “AMM optimization” .

indeed ERC3475 allows to simplify the management of Liquidity Pool management as each bonds store the state of bond supply and type , thus there is no need to issuance of seperate contracts everytime an new LP pair is added into the pool , along with beenfits of consolidated liquidity (thus avoiding common attack vectors like Impermanent Loss etc). in our reference implementation (explained in whitepaper , which we call as APM (Automated Pair Maker))

but along with that i wanted to also clarify that this standard is agnostic to the underlying liquidity maangement , and you can indeed have integration across different liquidity providers (Both APM or the traditional AMM)

Thanks for the question ,

So indeed as explained before : our standard is agnostic to the issuance of various types of bonds and the entities handling the operations of the bonds (via the approvals ) , whereas seeing the standard ERC1450 seems that its hardcoded and modified version of ERC20 which is specific to standard compliance , along with the issue that we highted that it will be needing seperate onchain contracts / offchain information in order to check for redemption and transfer .

Thanks for Q,

Its Non fungible in the sense that both the metadata , ownership and other details can be upgraded based on the different operations in the lifecycle , something that is an necessary process in the bonds lifecycle (from issuance to the redemption of the bonds ).

Can we add memo like field for transfers? For example in Steller/Ripple, using Memo, exchange can track deposit to same address via different memo numbers. Can it be implemented here as well?

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This is awesome. I think this EIP will be the first to bring bonds to Blockchain through a dedicated standard. I had seen previous standards to bring Stocks and other similar instruments to the blockchain but none for bonds. Arguably, bonds can be complex and a dedicated standard would be really great to have.

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Indeed , so if you read the standard section NonceInfos

NonceInfos

nonceInfos(uint256 classId, uint256 nonceId) allows anyone to read the information of a bond class’ nonce.

The "class" is the class nonce of bond, the first bond class created will be 0, and so on.

The "nonce" is the nonce of the bond. This param is for distinctions of the issuing conditions of the bond.

if you consider the Nonce to be transaction between counterparties of an particular type , then the NonceInformation can be define as the reference information about the nature of transaction (as defined by the memos) , beyond that also as classInfos are also defined , this is more helpful for transactions between the two different entities from different jurisdictions to get more information about the class of the transaction between the two different types of bond exchanges .

Hi dear developers,
I noticed that in the EIP, we have nonceInfos() to get a list of the value from the keys(classID, nonceID). But what will happen if we want to store in the same time an address, an integer and str. How the smart contract can interpreter this, and how the front end can translate those value for the users. Do we have a key dictionary. It’s this a part of EIP? I think we will need more detailed documents on the structure of the metadata.

so the nonceInfo there can be indeed arbitrary array consisting of different types of address (and indeed our KPI ).

But what will happen if we want to store in the same time an address, an integer and str.

Yes you can indeed store that in an array given that you provide the sequential metadata corresponding to each of the inputs so that the counterperties and their corresponding frontend logic can decode / encode the information (its defined by nonceInfoDescription)

How the smart contract can interpreter this, and how the front end can translate those value for the users. Do we have a key dictionary. It’s this a part of EIP?

yes you can do that by setting the nonceInfoDescription(uint256 nonceInfo) external view returns (string[] memory nonceInfoDescription)

PS: currently the nature of the nonceInfoDescription is defined as the string (rather than an array of strings) , so we will have to incorporate this correction now .

I think we will need more detailed documents on the structure of the metadata.

correct indeed , so we will create an PR with the changes

but if you could also explain some example of the metadata information needed to parse the store issuance and redemption information , feel free to discuss .

Got it, looking forward to read the documents and to see how far this EIP can go.

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What is an example of the metadata you would need for a bond issued from an AMM as an LP token?

Also, I think you may have left something out here, under Metadata Information:

“Info describing the information about the nature of classes , this includes the nonceInfoDescription , details concerning the…”